Science and Benefits Behind 1 of Brainz Power's 9 ingredients- N-Acetyl-L Carnitine HCI

The following Study is done by the US National Library of Medicine,

Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species that may contribute to vascular dysfunction. Alpha-lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine reduce oxidative stress and improve mitochondrial function. In a double blind, crossover study, we examined the effects of combined alpha-lipoic acid /acetyl-L-carnitine treatment and placebo (eight weeks per treatment) on vasodilator function and blood pressure in 36 subjects with coronary artery disease. Active treatment increased brachial artery diameter by 2.3% (P=0.008), consistent with reduced arterial tone. Active treatment tended to decrease systolic blood pressure for the whole group (P=0.07) and had a significantly effect in the subgroup with blood pressure above the median (151±20 to 142±18 mmHg, P=0.03) and in the subgroup with the metabolic syndrome (139±21 to 130±18 mmHg, P=0.03). Thus, mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to the regulation of blood pressure and vascular tone. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and determine the clinical utility of alpha-lipoic acid/acetyl-L-carnitine as antihypertensive therapy.

In addition to serving as the site of oxidative phosphorylation, it is now clear that mitochondria regulate many cellular functions, in part, by producing reactive oxygen species that signal the adaptive response to environmental stress and injury. Excess production of mitochondria-derived oxidants, however, may have maladaptive effects., There is growing evidence that disturbances of mitochondrial function, including increased oxidant production and altered mitochondria-dependent signaling contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular disease in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors.,,

On the basis of these observations, we hypothesized that an intervention designed to improve mitochondrial function would have beneficial vascular effects in patients with cardiovascular disease. Recent experimental studies have shown that administration of alpha-lipoic acid and/or acetyl-L-carnitine can reduce oxidant production and improve mitochondrial function in models of aging, Furthermore, these compounds reduce blood pressure and improve endothelial function in animal models of hypertension- and diabetes- The present study was designed to examine the effects of combined alpha-lipoic acid/acetyl-L-carnitine treatment on vascular function and blood pressure in patients with coronary artery disease.

This randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind crossover study demonstrated that combined alpha-lipoic acid/acetyl-L-carnitine treatment was associated with an increase in baseline brachial artery diameter. Furthermore, we observed a non significant trend for a blood pressure lowering effect of alpha lipoic acid/acetyl-L-carnitine in all subjects and a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure in subjects with systolic blood pressures above the median and in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. These findings suggest the possibility that these mitochondria-directed antioxidants reduce basal arterial tone, particularly in two clinically relevant subgroups. In contrast, we observed no effect of treatment on the dilator responses to increased flow, nitroglycerin, or ischemia (reactive hyperemia).

A prior study demonstrated a decrease in systolic blood pressure and a direct vasodilator effect in nailfold capillaries after treatment with oral L-carnitine (3g/d for 20days) in patients with digital vasospastic disease.An open-label study of patients with diabetic nephropathy, reported that long-term alpha lipoic acid treatment (600 mg/d for 18 months) prevented the increases in blood pressure and urine albumin concentration observed in control patients. Experimental studies have consistently demonstrated an anti-hypertensive effect of alpha-lipoic acid or L-carnitine in various rat models of hypertension, including spontaneously hypertensive rats,, uninephrectomized deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt (DOCA-salt) hypertensive ratsand salt-loaded Dahl and Wistar-Kyoto rats.,

Our study differs from several previous human studies that examined the effects of lipoic acid or carnitine on endothelial function. For example, Heitzer and colleagues observed an acute improvement in endothelium-dependent dilation of forearm microvessels following an intra-arterial infusion of lipoic acid (final concentration 0.2 mmoles/L) in patients with diabetes mellitus. Sola and colleagues recently reported improved brachial artery flow-mediated dilation following treatment with lipoic acid 300 mg/d for four weeks in young patients with the metabolic syndrome (mean age 46 years). Intravenous administration of L-carnitine (3 gram bolus) enhanced reactive hyperemia in patients with peripheral arterial disease. The apparent discrepancies between the results of those prior studies and the present study likely relate to the marked differences in dose, route of administration, vascular bed studied and/or patient population.

The mechanisms accounting for the increased brachial artery diameter and suggestive anti-hypertensive effects of alpha-lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine in our study remain undefined. We observed no effect of treatment on serum lipids, glucose, and insulin, which might have influenced endothelial function or arterial diameter. Experimental studies indicate that alpha-lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine play important and potentially synergistic roles in normal mitochondrial function, and that reduced levels of these compounds are associated with increased mitochondrial oxidant production.,, In addition, lipoic acid supplementation has favorable effects on cellular redox state and has been shown to decrease lipid peroxidation and cellular production of reactive oxygen species.,,, The effects of alpha-lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine on oxidative stress which contributes to the pathogenesis and cardiovascular complications of hypertension suggests that these compounds may be useful adjuncts in treatment. In the present study, we investigated the possibility that these compounds reduced oxidative stress and inflammation, but observed no effect of treatment on urinary F2 isoprostanes or serum C-reactive protein. It is important to point out, however, that these systemic markers may not accurately reflect events in the vascular wall.

Despite the effects on blood pressure and basal diameter, it is notable that we only observed a trend for increased total serum carnitine following treatment. It is known that acetyl-L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid are rapidly metabolized in human subjects with plasma half lives of 4.2 hours and 30 minutes,respectively. Thus, it is likely that acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid metabolites and/or tissue levels may be more relevant for the observed effects. Similarly, the lack of effect of treatment on urine F2 isoprostanes does not rule out an effect of active treatment on oxidative stress at the tissue level.

We observed a particular benefit of alpha-lipoic acid/acetyl-L-carnitine in patients with the metabolic syndrome. This syndrome of insulin resistance is associated with hypertension; improvement of insulin sensitivity could have an anti-hypertensive effect. Consistent with our findings, several experimental studies suggest a blood pressure-lowering effect in models of diabetes mellitus or insulin resistance.- Those results and our findings are consistent with the growing evidence linking insulin resistance to mitochondrial dysfunction

Read more at the following link http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2734271/

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Science and Benefits Behind 1 or Brainz Power's 9 ingredients- Phosphatidylserie

Bovine-derived PS (phosphatidylserine) has been shown to improve memory, cognition, and mood in the elderly. To date, most evidence suggests that soy-derived PS is not effective for ARCD.

Phosphatidylserine (PS) derived from bovine brain phospholipids has been shown to improve memory, cognition, and mood in the elderly in at least two placebo-controlled trials. In both trials, geriatric patients received 300 mg per day of PS or placebo. In an unblinded trial of ten elderly women with depressive disorders, supplementation with PS produced consistent improvement in depressive symptoms, memory, and behavior after 30 days of treatment.1 A double-blind trial of 494 geriatric patients with cognitive impairment found that 300 mg per day of PS produced significant improvements in behavioral and cognitive parameters after three months and again after six months.2

Most research has been conducted with PS derived from bovine tissue, but what is available commercially is made from soy. The soy- and bovine-derived PS, however, are not structurally identical.3Doctors and researchers have debated whether the structural differences could be important,4 , 5 but so far only a few trials have studied the effects of soy-based PS.

Preliminary animal research shows that the soy-derived PS does have effects on brain function similar to effects from the bovine source.6 , 7 , 8 An isolated, unpublished double-blind human study used soy-derived PS in an evaluation of memory and mood benefits in nondemented, nondepressed elderly people with impaired memories and accompanying depression.9 In this three-month study, 300 mg per day of PS was not significantly more effective than a placebo. In a double-blind study, soy-derived PS was administered in the amount of 300 or 600 mg per day for 12 weeks to people with age-related memory impairment. Compared with the placebo, soy-derived PS had no effect on memory or on other measures of cognitive function.10While additional research needs to be done, currently available evidence suggests that soy-derived PS is not an effective treatment for age-related cognitive decline

In a study of active young men, supplementation with phosphatidylserine increased the time the men could exercise until exhaustion by approximately 25%.
In a double-blind study of active young men, supplementation with 750 of soybean-derived phosphatidylserine per day for 10 days increased the time the men could exercise until exhaustion by approximately 25%.11 Longer studies are needed to determine whether this effect would persist with continued supplementation.
The Following Research was done by the University of Michigan, read more at the link below http://www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/hn-2896001
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Benefits of L-Glutamine

Studies have shown that using glutamine-enriched formulas after surgery increased immune cell activity, shortened hospital stays, improved nutritional status, and reduced infections.

Glutamine, one of the most abundant amino acids in the body, supports the health of the cells lining the gastrointestinal tract and is important for immune function.1 Glutamine is depleted when the body is under stress, including the stress of surgery.2 Blood levels of glutamine decrease following surgery, and as they return to normal, their increase parallels the increase in immune cells.3 Two controlled trials have shown that the use of glutamine-enriched intravenous formulas, providing approximately 20 grams of glutamine per day, resulted in increased immune cell activity and shorter hospital stays.4 , 5 Double-blind studies report that patients receiving intravenous formulas supplemented with glutamine after surgery had better nutritional status and better health outcomes, including fewer infections and other complications, compared with patients receiving regular formulas.

The amino acid glutamine may benefit athlete’s immune systems. Double-blind trials giving athletes glutamine reported 81% having no subsequent infection compared with 49% in the placebo group.

The amino acid glutamine appears to play a role in several aspects of human physiology that might benefit athletes, including their muscle function and immune system.8 Intense exercise lowers blood levels of glutamine, which can remain persistently low with overtraining.9 Glutamine supplementation raises levels of growth hormone at an intake of 2 grams per day,10 an effect of interest to some athletes because of the role of growth hormone in stimulating muscle growth,11 and glutamine, given intravenously, was found to be more effective than other amino acids at helping replenish muscle glycogen after exercise.12 However, glutamine supplementation (30 mg per 2.2 pounds body weight) has not improved performance of short-term, high-intensity exercise such as weightlifting or sprint cycling by trained athletes,13 , 14 and no studies on endurance performance or muscle growth have been conducted. Although the effects of glutamine supplementation onimmune function after exercise have been inconsistent,15 , 16double-blind trials giving athletes glutamine (5 grams after intense, prolonged exercise, then again two hours later) reported 81% having no subsequent infection compared with 49% in the placebo group

The following information was provided from the University of Michigan, read more at the following link http://www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/hn-2856003

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Science and Benefits Behind 1 of Brainz Power's 9 Ingredients- L-Glutamine

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid (building block of protein) in the body. The body can make enough glutamine for its regular needs. But during times of extreme stress (the kind you experience after heavy exercise or an injury), your body may need more glutamine than it can make. Most glutamine is stored in muscles, followed by the lungs where much of the glutamine is made.

Glutamine is important for removing excess ammonia (a common waste product in the body). It also helps your immune system function and may be needed for normal brain function and digestion.

You can usually get enough glutamine without taking a supplement because your body makes it and you get some in your diet. Certain medical conditions, including injuries, surgery, infections, and prolonged stress, can lower glutamine levels. In these cases, taking a glutamine supplement may be helpful.

Athletes who train for endurance events (like marathons) may reduce the amount of glutamine in their bodies. It is common for them to catch a cold after an athletic event. Some experts think that may be because of the role glutamine plays in the immune system. For this select group of athletes, one study showed that taking glutamine supplements resulted in fewer infections. The same is not true, however, for exercisers who work out at a moderate intensity.

Infomation provided by the University of Maryland Medical Center, Read more at the following link http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/glutamine

 

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DMAE (Dimethylaminoethanol) Benefits- One of Brainz Power's Ingredients

DMAE

What is it?

DMAE, or dimethylaminoethanol, is a compound found in high levels in anchovies and sardines. Small amounts of DMAE are also naturally produced in the human brain. Health-food outlets sell it in capsule form to “boost brain power.” While it probably won’t make you smarter, DMAE may play a role in treating memory lapses and symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. Some evidence suggests it may also play a beneficial role against the impulsive and disruptive behaviors caused by attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

The supplement has an interesting history. Initially, drug makers were interested in selling the product as a medication for attention deficit disorder after studies in the 1970s showed that deanol, the chemical name for DMAE, reduced hyperactivity and improved concentration in schoolchildren with learning disabilities and behavior problems. However, when further testing was deemed too expensive, it was packaged as a Nutritional supplement, as this substance is naturally found in fish.

Health Benefits

Because it steps up production of brain chemicals essential for short-term memory, concentration, and learning capacity, DMAE may aid in the treatment of ADHD and other disorders affecting the brain and central nervous system.

DMAE is sometimes referred to as a “cholinergic” because it is thought to increase levels of the Neurotransmitter acetylcholine, one of the chemicals in the brain that utilized in memory formation. “Cholinergic” drugs, such as tacrine (Cognex), are used to treat dementia associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

Cholinergic drugs are also sometimes prescribed to stabilize the debilitating movements brought on by tardive dyskinesia—repetitive involuntary movements, especially of the face, that can go along with diseases such as Tourette’s Syndrome and Huntington’s chorea, and can also be a side effect of  antipsychotic drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other mental conditions. Researchers have tested DMAE for these conditions, although results of several small studies have been disappointing and a Cochrane review of the available evidence in 2002 determined there was no benefit to this therapy. (1) Still, case reports continue to report some benefits for DMAE in certain individuals with these movement disorders. Benefits, if present, may be due to a Placebo effect or to some unknown genetic factor that makes certain people more responsive to the supplement.

Marketers have also trumpeted DMAE pills and creams for everything from prolonging life and enhancing athletic performance to ridding aging skin of “liver spots.” However, there are no sound studies to support these claims. Moreover, there is no evidence that human beings can suffer from a deficiency of DMAE.

Specifically, DMAE may help to:

  • Relieve the inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although ADHD has long been recognized as a cause of disruptive behavior and learning difficulties in school-age children, doctors are increasingly coming to recognize it as a cause of problems in adults as well. Evidence suggests that DMAE may help. Studies in children during the 1970s form the basis for DMAE’s role in treating ADHD.  In 1975, a study of 74 children with learning disabilities, including some with hyperactivity, found DMAE was more effective than placebo. Over three months, the children were treated with either 500 mg of DMAE, 40 mg of the stimulant Ritalin (methylphenidate, the most commonly prescribed drug for ADHD), or placebo. Those who were treated with either DMAE or Ritalin showed objective improvements on concentration and skills tests, while those taking placebo did not. (2) Further, a 1976 double-blind study assessed 50 hyperactive kids aged 6 to 12 years who would likely be diagnosed with ADHD based on current standards. After twelve weeks, children taking 500 mg of DMAE daily (300 mg in the morning and another 200 mg at lunch) showed greater improvements in behavior compared to children taking placebo. (3) However, two 1970s reviews of studies examining the clinical efficacy of DMAE and of ADHD treatments (including DMAE) produced inconclusive results regarding efficacy in treating ADHD. (4-5) Since then, little additional research has been done.

 

  • Improve memory. The possible memory-boosting effects of DMAE may help with the ordinary memory lapses that occur with normal aging. Many nutritionally oriented physicians prescribe DMAE along with another memory enhancer, the dietary supplement phosphatidylcholine. Although rigorous studies are lacking, some people who have tried DMAE report better memory (especially short-term memory), as well as improved concentration, focus, mental clarity, and sleep.

Some research also points to deficits in short-term, or working, memory in both children and adults with ADHD (although long-term memory is fine in these patients). Some of DMAE’s possible benefits for ADHD may, therefore, be due to its memory-boosting potential. Studies have yet to confirm this effect, but preliminary evidence in animals indicates a potential benefit. A 1983 study in mice found cholinergic drugs including DMAE improved working memory retention during a test one week after treatment. Memory retention improved as doses were increased, up to an optimal dosage. (6) And in 1995, another study in rats found those treated with DMAE showed improvement in working memory while navigating a maze. (7) More research is needed in this area to determine the effects of DMAE in humans.

  • Slow the progressive dementia of Alzheimer’s disease. The severe and progressive memory loss of Alzheimer’s disease is due in part to the loss of brain cells that produce acetylcholine, a key chemical messenger for enhancing communication between brain cells. Acetylcholine is essential for learning and memory. In fact, it’s for these reasons that doctors routinely prescribe drugs that boost levels of acetylcholine, such as tacrine (Cognex), donepezil (Aricept), rivasatigmine (Exelon), and galantamine (Reminyl).

In animal studies, DMAE supplements have led to significant improvements in short-term memory, possibly due to cholinergic effects.

Not all studies have been positive, however. In a 1977 study of fourteen senile patients with dementia, patients received 600 mg of DMAE three times daily for four weeks (including a two-week introduction period with smaller doses gradually increasing to 600 mg). In ten patients, depression, irritability, and anxiety were reduced, while motivation-initiative improved. However, cognitive tests showed that neither memory nor other cognitive functions improved with treatment. Symptoms in the remaining four patients remained unchanged. (8) And four years later, when researchers compared DMAE to a placebo in 27 patients with moderately severe or severe Alzheimer’s, the DMAE supplements provided no benefit. In fact, nearly half of the patients stopped taking DMAE due to unpleasant side effects such as drowsiness and increased confusion. (9) Other research investigating whether DMAE is truly a precursor of acetylcholine has been mixed as well, calling into question the supplement’s effectiveness for Alzheimer’s and other memory disorders.

Read More at the link below

http://wholehealthchicago.com/2010/02/14/dmae-dimethylaminoethanol/

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